#TITLE#How to Build an Athletic Fence with Sports Sheeting#/TITLE#

Whenever you read or hear about a professional team researching the possibility of relocating to another town, the desire for a new stadium is often the primary reason. A sparkling new stadium full of modern amenities attracts fans in droves — and that generates significant revenues for the group and the local businesses that surround the facility such as bars, restaurants, hotels and retail stores. The NFL’s Oakland Raiders are the latest instance of a sport’s team making a move in search of greener pastures. Playing in the antiquated Oakland Coliseum, which was constructed over 50 years back, the group generated a mere $69 million in stadium revenues in 2015, according to Forbes magazine. By comparison, the Dallas Cowboys, playing at the immaculate, state-of-the-art AT&T Stadium, raked in over $440 million. Unable to get financial support to build a new stadium in Oakland, the team’s possession sought and obtained approval from the league to move to Las Vegas, where it will play at a recently assembled 65,000-seat domed stadium (price tag: $1.9 billion) tentatively scheduled for completion in 2020. Annual revenue forecasts for the new facility range from $250-$350 million.



While the origins of this sports stadium can be traced to the ancient Greeks, the first modern facilities were built in the mid-to-late 19th century. These game venues were designed with practicality in mind — the goal was to hold as many audiences as possible, and amenities were virtually non-existent. The majority of these ancient structures were single-purpose facilities constructed mainly of wood, several of which were destroyed by fire. Goodison Park, a Liverpool, England soccer stadium that opened in 1892, was the first sports facility to feature a concrete-and-steel construction. The tendency of single-purpose stadiums continued through much of the 20th century. Facilities such as Fenway Park in Boston, which opened in 1912, and Ebbets Field in Brooklyn and Wrigley Field in Chicago, both of which were completed in 1914, were especially built for baseball. Designed to blend into the surrounding city neighborhoods, these facilities featured relatively small seating capacities and provided fans with a romantic, up-close ballpark experience that almost made them feel as if they were part of the action.


The post-World War II migration of Americans from the city to the suburbs combined with the increase in popularity of professional football led to the arrival of the multipurpose sports stadium concept, which served as the model for the facilities constructed during the 1960s and 1970s. Designed for both football and baseball, these circular, symmetrical concrete facilities were typically constructed in suburban areas and offered easy access by interstate highway. Spacious parking lots were required to accommodate the heavy vehicle traffic, since these facilities were inaccessible through the cities’ mass transit systems. Examples of this multipurpose stadium concept included Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium in Washington, D.C.; Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia; Three Rivers Stadium in Pittsburgh; Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium; and Jack Murphy Stadium in San Diego. The Houston Astrodome, which opened in 1965, was the world’s first multipurpose stadium to feature a domed roof and an artificial turf field.


While multipurpose stadiums offered the advantage of practicality and versatility, the uninspired cookie-cutter design featured in the majority of these facilities eventually fell out of favor with audiences, particularly old-school baseball fans who longed for a return to the neighborhood ballpark look and feel. This led to the growth of the retro-classic concept inspired by older facilities such as Wrigley Field and Fenway Park. The first of this retro-classic ballparks was Oriole Park at Camden Yards in Baltimore. Completed in 1992, Camden Yards rests on the site of an old B&O railroad yard in South Baltimore and comes with a sprawling, 1,100-foot-long, eight-story refurbished railroad warehouse as a backdrop. Other stadiums motivated by the Camden Yards model include Progressive Field in Cleveland, PNC Park in Pittsburgh, Citizens Bank Park in Philadelphia, AT&T Park in San Francisco and Miller Park in Milwaukee. These facilities combine the retro look and feel with all the modern features and amenities necessary to fulfill the demands of the 21st-century sports enthusiast. These new baseball stadiums include expansive scoreboards and video replay screens, as well as natural grass or artificial turf fields that are softer than artificial turf.




While the traditional stadium design catered to families, modern stadiums to appeal to the 18-to-34-year-old demographic. These younger people view going to a sporting event as a whole entertainment experience that entails far more than watching a ball game. The design of newer facilities typically incorporates features such as pedestrian malls, entertainment plazas and concourses situated outside the stadium that allow fans to dine, shop and socialize before and after the match. Now’s facilities also feature numerous seating environments that extend well beyond the standard stadium seat in the middle of a crowded row of spectators. Premium seating options include private suites that resemble living rooms and can accommodate 10-15 fans. These suites include a private entrance from the stadium concourse and also have attributes such as buffets, bars, television screens and computers with Internet access. Some stadiums even offer field suites situated in the front row that place fans directly on top of the action. Stadium amenities also have come a long way, regarding the variety of food choices. Along with the hot dog, beer and bag of peanuts, most stadiums offer a broad assortment of luxury cuisine and craft beers and wine to appeal to a younger, upscale crowd. Menu choices at AT&T Stadium in Dallas, widely regarded as the crown jewel of NFL facilities, include everything from chicken fried quail into a brisket sandwich on pretzel bread smothered in melted onions, piquillo peppers and melted cheddar cheese. While the popularity of single-purpose stadiums continues, there are signs of an eventual return to the multipurpose concept. According to John Rhodes, Director of Sports, Recreation and Entertainment in the London office of HOK, the architectural company largely responsible for producing the Camden Yards concept, the multipurpose design was gaining traction across Europe over the past decade. Rhodes suggests there is an increasing shift toward developing more civic-type facilities that can host a wide range of sporting and community events. Sustainability has also become a critical element in all new stadium projects to comply with LEED requirements. In a recent StarTalk Radio episode, Stadiums of the Future, Neil deGrasse Tyson dives into modern stadium designs and tech with co-hosts Gary O’Reilly and Chuck Nice and Benjamin Brillat of IBM Sports. Bejamin Brillat discusses how these advancements start right from once the stadium is only a hole in the ground. They bury the conduit in the concrete before it gets poured. Future designs will not only change the way fans encounter a game, but it might also change the sport.